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City and Location

İstanbul

İstanbul Tanıtım VideosuIstanbul is truly a world city, a city which everyone should visit at least once in their lifetime. It is an enchanting blend of Eastern and Western culture, a vibrant, modern city, with a unique identity. Its rich past coexists alongside its youthful exuberance. Although no longer the capital of Turkey, Istanbul still remains the country's cultural and business centre.

It is a city of contrasts, bustling with the cacophony of 21st century life, and is yet achingly beautiful. It is set in a stunning location, surrounded by water, which is the narrow strait of the Bosphorus and the serene sea of Marmara separating Europe from Asia. İstanbul has a foot in each, celebrating the best of both heritages. As Byzantium, Constantinople and finally, İstanbul, it has been the capital of three Empires, each leaving their mark in the form of stunning palaces, castles, mosques, churches and monuments. The legacy of its chequered past can be seen on every turn of the modern city.

The layout of İstanbul can seem confusing at first. The Bosphorus divides the city into the European and Asian sides, linked by two magnificient bridges, spanning the continents, the first of which was opened in 1973 to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Republic. Most visitors to the city, staying for a few days, will have little reason to visit the Asian side, except for as part of a Bosphorus tour, on a boat which zigzags from side to side, to take in the best of each.

The European side, however, is also divided in two by the Golden Horn or Haliç, which roughly divides the historic part of old İstanbul, encompassing the areas of, Sultanahmet and Laleli, from the modern city. It is crossed by a number of bridges, the most famous of which is the pontoon, the Galata Bridge. Most visitors on short city breaks stay in the old town as the vast majority of the sites which they will be visiting are in this area. İstanbul's most famous sites - The Blue Mosque or Sultan Ahmet Cami, Aya Sofya (Hagia Sophia), Topkapı Sarayı (Palace) and the Grand Bazaar (Kapalı Çarşı) - are all within a 30 minute walk of each other. It is easy to get around on foot or by making use of the tram, which provides a regular service on the pedestrianised main street. In terms of accommodation, there are now a number of characterful boutique hotels in the area of Sultanahmet, many of which are restored Ottoman wooden mansions. These are ideal for those who really want to savour the authentic atmosphere of the Old Town. Those on a budget, may want to consider the more modern, and competitively priced hotels of the Laleli district, although this area is much busier.

Although it is convenient, the disadvantage of staying in the Old Town, is that, since it is not a residential area, you don't really benefit from the ambience of the modern city of İstanbul, with its excellent restaurants, lively bars, and cosmopolitan feel. Some of İstanbul's finest, most luxurious hotels are located on the Bosphorus with stunning views over the straits, or in the modern business districts. There are also some historic establishments in the area known as Pera, which blossomed at the turn of the last century. The heart of modern İstanbul, is Taksim Square and the streets around. The advantage of staying here is that in the evenings you have a wealth of restaurants and relaxed bars within an easy walk of your hotel.

Wherever you choose to stay, it doesn't take much to make the most of the city, and even three days will give you the opportunity to see the highlights. It is such a large city, however, that even if you visit time and time again, you can still discover something new each time. It is easy to get around. There are a couple of handy trams - one in the old town, and the other in the main shopping street in Pera, İstiklal Caddesi. Taxis are plentiful and relatively cheap and there are also dolmush and bus services for those who really want to explore. Most tour operators can arrange tours to see the main sights.

The Bosphorus
Some of İstanbul's finest vistas are to be seen from the Bosphorus. If you have time it is well worth spending at least half a day viewing the sights and savouring the atmosphere. You can take a guided tour on a small boat, or Turkish Maritime Lines (TDİ) runs a good value public ferry service which leaves two or three times a day and does the full round trip as far as Anadolu Kavağı, the nearest village to the Black Sea on the Asian side, and back to Eminönü. It is a charming place, known for its fish restaurants, and the walk up to the ruined fortress overlooking the village, is well worth it for the stunning views. As you leave from Eminönü you can benefit from some beautiful views back towards the old town with its evocative skyline of turreted roofs and minarets. As you head towards the Black Sea you will pass the Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and the 15th century fortresses built by Mehmet II, Rumeli Hisarı and Anadolu Hisarı. Also look out for the stunning wooden Ottoman mansions, many of which have been renovated and form some of the city's most desirable residences. Even if you don't have time for a Bosphorus trip just take one of the distinctive city ferries for a quick trip from Eminönü to the Asian shores and back - to Üsküdar for example, just to admire the views of the old town

Beyazıt  Square

This was built in 393 during the reign of Theodosius I as the largest square in the city. There was a gigantic triumphal arch in the center decorated by bronze bull heads, hence the name "Forum Tauri" (Square of Bulls).

A few marble blocks and column fragments have been found from the triumphal arch, which was crowned with the statue of the emperor, but nothing remains from the monumental fountain in the northern part of the square. Water to this, the largest fountain in the city, was supplied by means of the Aqueduct of Valens. To the north, the campus of the University of Istanbul now occupies the ground on which Mehmet the Conqueror built his first palace. The monumental gate of the university and the fire lookout tower in the garden are from the 19th century. The present-day name of the square derives from the Beyazit Mosque, which was built in the 15th century. The mosque, neighboring the always crowded and lively Covered Bazaar, used to have a complex of surrounding buildings, but only the medrese, the baths and some of the shops remain today.

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